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HLA-B27 is a specific protein (antigen) found on cell surfaces that is involved in the immune system’s function. It is not a disease but rather a genetic marker. Being HLA-B27 positive increases the likelihood of developing certain autoimmune conditions, most notably ankylosing spondylitis, a form of spinal arthritis. Other associated conditions include reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. While many people with the HLA-B27 antigen never develop these disorders, its presence, particularly when combined with specific symptoms, can be a significant clue in diagnosis. Therefore, testing for HLA-B27 is often part of the diagnostic process for suspected autoimmune diseases.