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PAI-1 4G/5G RealFast™ Assay: Unveiling Thrombosis and Pregnancy Risk Factors
Thrombosis, characterized by the formation of blood clots within blood vessels, can lead to serious health complications such as heart attacks, strokes, and deep vein thrombosis. Additionally, complications during pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss, can pose significant risks to both the mother and the developing fetus. Understanding the genetic factors that contribute to these conditions is crucial for early detection and personalized healthcare. The PAI-1 4G/5G RealFast™ Assay, developed by ViennaLab Diagnostics GmbH, offers a fast and precise real-time PCR-based solution for detecting a key genetic polymorphism associated with thrombosis and pregnancy complications.
Polymorphism in SERPINE1 Gene
The human SERPINE1 gene encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a critical regulator of fibrinolysis, the process that dissolves blood clots. Within the promoter region of this gene lies a crucial polymorphism: the 4G/5G deletion/insertion. This single nucleotide variation at position -675 influences PAI-1 expression levels. Individuals carrying the homozygous 4G variant exhibit approximately 25% higher plasma PAI-1 concentrations compared to those with the 5G variant. Elevated PAI-1 levels are associated with impaired clot dissolution due to reduced fibrinolytic activity.
PAI-1 is central to maintaining hemostasis, the body’s mechanism for preventing excessive bleeding. However, an imbalance in the fibrinolysis process, driven by high PAI-1 levels, can increase the risk of thrombosis. The 4G allele of PAI-1 is considered a risk factor for both arterial and venous thrombosis, particularly when combined with other thrombosis-related genetic mutations. Individuals with this genetic makeup may face a higher likelihood of experiencing conditions like venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction.
In addition to its role in thrombosis, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism has been linked to complications during pregnancy. Research has shown that women with the 4G allele are at an increased risk of recurrent pregnancy loss, early pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. These conditions can be life-threatening for both the mother and the unborn child, emphasizing the importance of identifying genetic risk factors early in pregnancy.
The PAI-1 4G/5G RealFast™ Assay by ViennaLab Diagnostics GmbH offers a valuable tool for identifying individuals at risk of thrombosis and pregnancy complications due to the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. With a fast and accurate real-time PCR approach, this assay enables healthcare providers to make informed decisions regarding patient care and management. Early detection of genetic risk factors allows for personalized interventions, ultimately improving patient outcomes and reducing the incidence of thrombosis-related and pregnancy-related complications.