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Protozoans are single-celled microorganisms that can act as parasites, causing a range of infections in humans. Frequently affecting the digestive and circulatory systems, these organisms are responsible for diseases such as malaria, giardiasis, and amoebic dysentery. Diagnosis often requires specialized tests such as blood smears, stool samples, or molecular methods like PCR. Treatment generally involves antiparasitic medications, the choice of which depends on the specific protozoan involved. Protozoan infections are most common in regions with limited access to clean water and healthcare, making rapid and accurate diagnostic testing crucial for effective treatment and control.