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Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of blood cancers originating in the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced. In these conditions, the bone marrow makes excessive numbers of one or more types of blood cells, disrupting the body’s ability to regulate blood cell production effectively. The overproduction can lead to various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and an increased risk of blood clots or bleeding. Types of MPNs include polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis. Diagnosis usually involves blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and sometimes genetic testing. Treatment is often aimed at reducing the risk of complications and may include medication, phlebotomy, or even stem cell transplantation in severe cases.