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Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative, diplococcal bacterium primarily responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. This pathogen poses a considerable challenge to public health systems globally and is known for its rapid adaptability, often developing resistance to a wide array of antibiotics.

The bacterium typically appears in pairs (diplococci) with adjacent sides flattened. The outer membrane of N. gonorrhoeae contains lipopolysaccharides, porins, and other proteins that facilitate its attachment to host epithelial cells.

Diagnosis typically involves nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), which are more sensitive and specific compared to culture methods. Treatment currently relies on dual therapy, often involving a cephalosporin like ceftriaxone combined with azithromycin to counter potential resistance.

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