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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a viral infection caused by the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). It primarily affects the liver and can result in a wide range of liver conditions, from acute inflammation to chronic diseases like cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. It is primarily transmitted through blood-to-blood contact, sexual transmission, and from mother to child during childbirth.

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) has a partially double-stranded DNA genome with four overlapping open reading frames (ORFs):

  • Pol: Codes for the viral DNA polymerase and has reverse transcriptase activity.
  • S: Produces the surface antigen (HBsAg), critical for viral encapsulation and immune response.
  • C: Produces the core antigen (HBcAg) and e antigen (HBeAg), which are essential for viral assembly and modulation of host immune response.
  • X: Codes for the HBx protein, involved in transcriptional activation and thought to be linked to hepatocellular carcinoma.


Some key markers for diagnosis include:

  • HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): Indicates an active infection.
  • Anti-HBs: Signifies immunity, either through vaccination or previous infection.
  • Anti-HBc: Denotes current or past infection.
  • HBeAg: Suggests that the virus is actively replicating and that the infected person is highly contagious.

This understanding of the molecular characteristics of Hepatitis B is crucial for developing precise diagnostics, treatment protocols, and preventive measures, making it a fundamental subject for labs engaged in hepatology research.

When you’re looking for reliable diagnostic solution for Hepatitis B, the GeneProof Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) PCR Kit stand as a strong option.