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Adenoviruses are responsible for a spectrum of diseases in humans. These versatile viruses can lead to various clinical manifestations, ranging from mild, self-limiting infections to severe, systemic illnesses. Respiratory infections are among the most common diseases caused by adenoviruses. They often present as the common cold, characterized by symptoms such as runny nose, sore throat, cough, and fever. In more severe cases, adenovirus respiratory infections can lead to bronchitis or pneumonia, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Adenoviruses are non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral capsid. Their genome consists of linear, double-stranded DNA, which is relatively stable and resistant to many environmental factors. This stability contributes to their ability to persist in various environments and infect a wide range of hosts. The family Adenoviridae comprises numerous serotypes, with over 80 human adenovirus serotypes classified into seven species (A to G). Different serotypes can cause distinct clinical manifestations. For instance, species C adenoviruses are commonly associated with respiratory infections, while species F adenoviruses can cause conjunctivitis.

Diagnosing adenovirus infections involves various methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), viral culture, and serological tests. PCR is the preferred method due to its high sensitivity and specificity, enabling rapid and accurate diagnosis.