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Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutations are frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), serving as a critical biomarker for diagnosis and treatment planning. The NPM1 gene is instrumental in regulating cellular growth and division. When mutated, it can contribute to uncontrolled cell proliferation, thereby playing a key role in leukemia development. Identifying NPM1 mutations can provide insights into the disease’s aggressiveness and prognosis. Furthermore, it can guide therapeutic approaches, as patients with NPM1 mutations may respond differently to certain treatments compared to those with wild-type NPM1. Hence, NPM1 status is crucial for optimizing patient care in AML.