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Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, significantly elevate the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers, among others. These genes normally act as tumor suppressors, helping to repair damaged DNA. A mutation can compromise this repair function, leading to genetic instability and cancer. Testing for BRCA mutations is commonly done for individuals with a strong family history of related cancers. Knowing one’s BRCA status is crucial for both preventive measures, such as more frequent screenings or prophylactic surgeries, and treatment decisions, including the use of targeted therapies like PARP inhibitors.