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Mutations in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EFGR) gene, plays a key role in regulating cell growth and division. In a mutated state, EGFR can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation, contributing to the development of various types of cancers, most notably non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Testing for EGFR mutations is vital for determining the appropriateness of targeted therapies like tyrosine kinase inhibitors. These targeted treatments can significantly improve patient outcomes by specifically inhibiting the action of the mutated EGFR, thereby hindering tumor growth and progression.