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Lung cancer is one of the most common and lethal types of cancer, often diagnosed at an advanced stage due to its subtle early symptoms. It primarily originates in the lung tissues and can be categorized into non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), each requiring different treatment approaches. Innovations in diagnostics and targeted therapies are continually emerging, aiming to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. Risk factors include smoking, exposure to environmental toxins, and genetic predisposition. Understanding the molecular mechanisms through advanced diagnostics can guide personalized treatment strategies, thereby improving survival rates.